|Title:||Human Lice and Their Control|
|Author:||Burgess, Ian F.*|
|Source:||Annual Review of Entomology; 2004, Vol. 49 Issue 1, p457-481, 25p|
|Abstract:||Current research on human louse biology has focused on the longstanding debate about speciation of head and body lice but using new tools of DNA and enzyme analysis these studies have indicated that head and body lice from the same geographical zone may be more closely allied than insects inhabiting the same ecological niche in other regions. However, the majority of research over the past decade has involved clinical aspects including transmission, treatment, and the appearance and identification of resistant strains within populations of lice. Despite advances, there is a need for a better understanding of louse biology, as existing therapies fail and lice remain potential vectors of disease for millons of people.|
|Author Affiliations:||Insect Research & Development Limited, Cambridge Road, Fulbourn, Cambridge CB1 5EL, United Kingdom|
|Database:||Academic Search Premier|
Head lice deliberately removed from their hosts ceased movement in less than 55 h (mean 21.3±12.1) (29), or 35±1.7h at 18oC or 24±1.8h at 26oC(47). Many lice are nonviable and are unable to feed as a result of dehydration long before they stop moving or even walking (13). This means that a louse accidentally transferred to a pillow in the morning would unlikely be viable when the host goes to bed again that night. Furthermore, Chunge et al. (29) found no lice or viable eggs on brushes and combs, and eggs deliberately removed failed to hatch at room temperatures (fluctuating between 20o and 30oC). Experimentally, at a “high room temperature” of 26o–27oC, viability of louse eggs is reduced so that less than 50% of either head or body louse eggs hatched in 9–17 days at 50% relative humidity (47, 51). Consequently, the risk of transmission of infestation by displaced lice or louse eggs is epidemiologically insignificant compared with the risks of lice transferring from one person to another during physical contact, a conclusion drawn from studies conducted in the United States more than 20 years ago (45a).
Most insecticides employed against human lice have been used in consumer products for decades. Although it was long recognized that resistance to most insecticides would develop eventually, public health authorities and the pharmaceutical industry have been slow to respond to resistance, as now it is a reality.
*The author cited above is not in any way affiliated with Rainforest Essentials. Their citation is offered solely for informational purposes and not to be construed as an endorsement of Lice Off™ in particular or any of our products in general.